The Numismatic Bibliomania Society

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Welcome to The E-Sylum: Volume 7, Number 04, January 25, 2004:
an electronic publication of the Numismatic Bibliomania Society.
Copyright (c) 2004, The Numismatic Bibliomania Society.


  Among recent new subscribers is NBS member Douglas Mudd.
  Welcome aboard!   We now  have 622  subscribers.


  With the help of Fred Lake, Pete Smith and George Fitzgerald,
  we have identified all but one of the gentlemen in Fred Lake's
  photo taken at the NBS meeting at the 2004 Florida United
  Numismatists convention.  From left to right they are:

  1. [unknown] (wearing light green shirt)
  2. George Fitzgerald (wearing a red shirt)
  3. John Kraljevich (wearing a suit)
  4. Wendell Wolka (behind sign)
  5. Dan Hamelberg (wearing dark jacket)
  6. John Reichenberger (wearing a yellow shirt)

  See the picture at:


  George Kolbe writes: "After processing the details of our
  November 29th auction sale, taking a little time to enjoy the
  holidays, and bouts with various pesky flu bugs, we are back
  to cataloguing the first John J. Ford, Jr. Library sale, which
  will take place at the Mission Inn ( ) in
  Riverside, California on Tuesday June 1st, 2004.

  We have been able to secure special room rates at the
  Mission Inn for Sunday May 30th, Monday May 31st, and
  Tuesday June 1st. Reservations can be made by calling (800)
  843-7755 or (909) 784-0300 ext. 850. Attendees must
  NUMISMATIC BOOKS group (what a mouthful) when
  making reservations. Those who have already reserved rooms
  should be able to obtain the special rate by calling one of the
  above telephone numbers and mentioning the magic words.
  There is also a wide variety of other lodging in the area.
  Those arriving by air for the sale may wish to choose Ontario
  International Airport, a new modern facility. It's about 10
  minutes from the Mission Inn, 45 minutes from Crestline,
  and 45 minutes from the Long Beach Convention Center,
  where dealer setup for the coin show is on the day following
  the sale.

  Some of the more interesting items catalogued in the Ford
  Library since our last report include:

 The Chapmans' Bid Book of the 1906 Wetmore sale, with

  Two additional American Bond Detectors, bringing the total
  to seven copies, all different in one respect or another. One
  of these last two is inscribed by Ordway, and the other is
  the 1871 Second Edition.

  Five editions of Hodges' Bank Note Safeguard 1859-1863,
  and Dye's 1855 Bank Note Plate Delineator, generally in
  exceptionally fine condition

  A 1910 work by James Cannon on 1907 Clearing House
  Loan Certificates, with 21 plates of the currency, mostly
  printed in colors

  The author's copy of Reed's 1879 Sketch of the Early
  History of Banking in Vermont, with specimens of Vermont
  State Bank notes and other items

  A deluxe leatherbound edition of Dietz's 1929 Postal
  Service of the Confederate States of America

  Wayte Raymond's 1875 Crosby in the Nova Constellatio

  A very fine plated 1882 Bushnell sale

  David Proskey's Priced and Named auction room copy
  of the Chapmans' 1882 Bushnell sale, with plates

  David Proskey's Priced and Named auction room copy
  of the Chapmans' 1884 Warner sale

  A superb plated 1905 John G. Mills sale

  A superb plated 1906 H. P. Smith sale

  The Chapmans' Bid Book of the 1906 H. P. Smith sale,
  with plates

  An exceptionally fine Post-Sale Hardbound 1909
  Zabriskie Sale with Plates

  A ?Mint? Plated 1909 Jewett Sale

  The Bid Book of the 1911 Julius Brown Sale

  William H. Woodin's superb leather-bound 1912 George
  H. Earle sale, with plates

  A "near new" plated 1916 Charley Gregory sale, in the
  original gilt-printed white paper covers

  A superb 1920 W. H. Hunter sale, with plates

  The Bid Book of the Hunter Sale

  A very fine copy of Marvin's 1880 Medals of the Masonic
  Fraternity; also the most complete example we have ever
  encountered of the Supplement.

  Wayte Raymond?s own copy of the 1925 W. W. C. Wilson
  Sale, With 56 Plates (the additional 11 plates depict Wilson's
  Bouquet Sous and all of the items depicted in the text as

  The Bid Book of the 1925 W. W. C. Wilson Sale

  The Bid Books of Parts II & III of the W. W. C. Wilson Sale

  By far the finest original set of Frossard's Numisma that we
  have ever encountered

  A 1792 French work comprising the documentary basis for
  the issuance of the Castorland Medal

  J. N. T. Levick?s Annotated Low on Hard Times Tokens,
  With Adams Plates

  The Chapmans' Bid Book of the 1882 Bushnell sale, with

  The Chapmans' Bid Book of the 1904 Mills sale, with plates

  S. H. Chapman?s Priced and Named 1909 Zabriskie Sale

  S. H. Chapman?s annotated sales room copy of the 1914
  Parsons Sale

  Wayte Raymond?s Hardbound United States Coin Company
  Sales, Including a Plated Lardner Catalogue and a Number
  of Bid Books

  J. N. T. Levick?s own annotated 1884 Levick sale, with a
  remarkable comment on cataloguer Woodward: ?His one eye
  didn't see it - as I did have it?

  This doesn't bring us up to date. We'll send in another report
  in the next week or two."


  Fred Lake writes: "The prices realized list for our sale #72 is
  now posted to our web site at

  Once on that page press the link marked "2004" (or scroll
  down) and you will see the two options for viewing the PRL.
  Thanks to all of our bidders and consignors for making this a
  most successful and interesting sale."


  The Winter 2003 issue of American Numismatic Society
  magazine includes a progress report on fundraising for the
  Francis D. Campbell Library Chair by Library Committee
  Chairman John W. Adams.   Much progress has been
  made toward the $2 million goal.   "We are also driving
  toward broad participation with a goal of 500 individual
  contributions.  In coming months, our Library Chair
  brochures will be distributed in the catalogues of all the
  major auction houses.  Articles will appear in several of
  the numismatic journals published by the leading specialty
  groups.  And, we will climax our drive with a fun-packed
  (we promise) auction of donated books to be held at the
  ANA convention in Pittsburgh in August 2004."

  Actually, the auction will be off-site, a few blocks from
  the ANA convention itself.  "What we need now are your
  donations of suitable auction lots.  We seek books and
  related material with a minimum value of $300 per item,
  with all donations being tax deductible to the full extent of
  the law."   For more information on the auction, contact
  George Kolbe at gfk at

  I've already sent my check, and I hope many of our
  subscribers will support the drive as well.  I've also
  shipped a few items to George for the auction.  To whet
  the appetites of potential bidders, here are my clumsy
  descriptions of two of them (I'm sure George will do a
  far better job of writing them up in the catalogue):

    Catalogue of John W. Haseltine's Type Table of U.S.
    Dollars, Half Dollars & Quarter Dollars, 1881.
    Handwritten in ink on front endpaper is "M. L. Beistle /
    Shippensburg Pa / July 1 1922.
    Penciled notations (probably Beistle numbers) on many
    of the half dollar entries (lots 654-740).  Occasional
    additional notes.   After lot 664 (1795 half) is written
    "Gies" (probably A. C. Gies).   Remainder of catalog is
    clean.  Prices realized bound in back.  3/4 black leather
    and brown cloth boards. 8vo, 130pp.

   Application for Federal Employment (Standard Form 57,
   Revised May 1954, U.S. Civil Service Commission).
   Position: Curator of Numismatics
   Place: Washington, D.C.
   Applicant:  Hans Maurits F. Schulman, New York, NY.
   Four-page application filled out in ink.  Signed and dated
   by Hans Schulman on April 15, 1956.   Lists as references
   Clyde Trees, Director of Medallic Art Co.,  The Hon.
   Nellie Tayloe Ross, former U.S. Mint Director, and The
   Hon. R. Henry Norweb, Former Ambassador of the USA.
   Answered "No" to question 23, "Are you now, or have you
   ever been, a member of the Communist Party, U.S.A., or
   any other Communist organization?   4pp.


  Michael J. Sullivan submitted the following review of a
  new book by Alec Tulkoff on the modern counterfeiting
  of artifacts relating to the Holocaust.   He writes:

  "While counterfeiting is a sad reality, particularly in the
  context of the Holocaust, it is admirable for someone to
  have dedicated 25 years to research this material to
  prevent modern day exploitation of one of the worst
  chapters in modern history.  The book includes some
  information on banknotes which may be of interest to
  our E-Sylum readers.

  I found this book to be well written, with great illustrations
  and images. It was very informative regarding this interesting
  area that is ripe with forgeries.  It covers everything from
  stamps and currency, to uniforms and markings. Below is an
  excerpt from the press release. This book is a reference and
  resource guide to help determine the authenticity of these
  artifacts, and provides a detailed look at various Holocaust-
  related artifacts in a manner that follows the experiences of
  the survivors and victims. As an example; the Germans
  identified some individuals with outward markings, forced
  them to register, pressed them into forced labor, ghettoized,
  and eventually deported them to concentration camps or
  labor facilities, and due to the different times that these
  activities took place in conquered and occupied countries,
  they are distinguished here by the action rather than by a
  general timeline (for example, Jews in occupied Poland were
  forced to wear "Jewish badges" in 1939, while this did not
  occur in Germany until 1941). The Holocaust is a difficult
  period of history to examine, and although some of the
  photographs contained in this book are horrific in nature,
  this book in no way trivializes the magnitude of the
  Holocaust by discussing the collection and identification of
  Holocaust-related artifacts. The issue at hand is the callous
  disregard by those who profit from the Holocaust by
  manufacturing and selling counterfeit and fake items.
  Alec Tulkoff has been a collector of World War II militaria
  for the past twenty-five years. Over the past seven years he
  has taken an interest in Holocaust history and artifacts.
  During the past two years, while working at the SHOAH
  Visual History Foundation as a cataloguer, he compiled the
  information and materials contained in this book. As a
  cataloguer in the Foundation, he had the opportunity to hear
  hundreds of first hand Holocaust survivor testimonies. Tulkoff
  has worked hard in combating the vast amount of Holocaust
  artifact fraud that has spread in the collecting community and
  has posted a website dealing with this fraud and also publishes
  a quarterly newsletter on this topic. Size:8 1/2" x 11"
  Illustrations: over 160 color and b/w photographs Pages:
  88 NEW"

  [Michael was unable to locate  the author's web site.
   Perhaps we'll have more information next week.  Can any
   of our readers provide more information on the book?
   Thanks. -Editor]


  Barb Anwari of San Diego CA writes: "I am writing in
  reference to the online issue of "E-sylum" from November
  1999, which mentions the Higley Coppers ...

  It's my understanding that there is no documentation that
  incontestably links John Higley to these coins (other than
  the fact he was Samuel Higley's older brother).  I am doing
  some research on this point, and wonder if you might give
  me a leg up on finding sources.

  Any help, and your thoughts, would be greatly appreciated.
  Thank you!"


  Ray Williams writes: "I saw the press release about "The
  Copper Coinage of the State of New Jersey: Annotated
  Manuscript of Damon G. Douglas, Edited  by Gary A.
  Trudgen" in this Sunday's E-Sylum.  I received my copy
  of the manuscript on Friday (actually 3 copies).  I
  understand that the print run was limited to 500 copies.
  I think it nice that a researcher's work can be honored
  and published in such a way, decades after he's gone.
  Mr. Douglas seemed to be decades ahead of his time
  and did a lot of original research, contacting libraries,
  museums, historical societies and families across the
  country.  He located many original documents to work
  from.  I wish I could have met the man!"


  Darryl Atchison writes: "Walter Breen states in his "Complete
  Encyclopedia of U.S. and Colonial Coins" (1988) that
  approximately two dozen North West Company tokens were
  discovered in the "Umpqua River Valley hoard" in Oregon
  around 1976.

  I have searched for hours online and cannot find anything
  which can point me to a reference on this hoard.  I would be
  interested in learning more about the site including: what was
  the site used for (i.e. was there a trading post on this site or
  was it an Indian habitation or graveyard perhaps); what other
  objects were found on the site; who excavated the site; and
  is there an official report on file.

  I was hoping to obtain some of these answers so that we
  can possibly investigate the circumstances in which these
  pieces were issued.  For years, many people have believed
  that these pieces were used like the Hudson's Bay Company
  "made beaver" pieces.  However, some of us now believe
  that  these pieces were more likely used as private Indian
  Chief pieces such as those issued by Astor for use in Astoria.
  Any information on this hoard may help us to shed more
  light on the debate.

  If anyone can tell me any more information on this hoard
  or can possibly direct me to any possible source of more
  information I would be very grateful. My email address is
  atchisondf at  Thanks again."


  Last week we discussed "...a review by Russ Rulau of a new
  book by L. B. Fauver titled  "Nuremberg and Nuremberg
  Style Jetons."   The 300-page hardbound catalog "will almost
  certainly replace the works of Eklund, Barnard, Berry,
  Drewing, Gebert, Levinson, Mitchiner and others insofar as
  their Nuremberg coverage overlaps the current volume."

  Jørgen Sømod writes: "I see Josef Neumann is not mentioned
  among the works, which now is replaced. Wonderful, because
  I do still use Nemann."


  Last week we asked, "Do many mints around the world use
  ...  tokens or scrip within their walls?   David Lange writes:
  "I have a collection of three brass tokens denominated at 5, 10
  and 25 cents that formerly were used by employees of the San
  Francisco Mint. They date from the 1980s and are no longer
  used, the mint having since switched to a debit-card system to
  avoid any stray metal finding its way into coin presses.

  Unfortunately, the tokens don't indicate that they were
  intended for the mint.  In fact, they're completely generic and
  were probably used at other facilities, too.  I know they were
  ex San Francisco Mint only because they were given to me
  by an employee at the time."

  Scott Semans writes: I've handled metal canteen (cafeteria)
  tokens for Shanghai (China) and both Calcutta and Bombay
  (India) Mints.  In fact, there are at least two series for
  Calcutta.  The India are guesstimated at 1960s-80s while the
  Shanghai are probably 1980s-90s.  The Indian tokens carry
  denominations while the Chinese seem to be good-fors as
  one has a legend translating as "vegetable".


  Now that we're in to the new year, I thought I'd again
  encourage our readers who will be attending the convention
  of the American Numismatic Association this summer to
  consider exhibiting some of their numismatic literature.
  Exhibit applications for the Pittsburgh convention are
  online at
  ANA Exhibit Applications
  The deadline is June 21, 2004.

  The 2004 Exhibit Chairman, John Eshbach writes:
  "Exhibitors should also go to the ANA web site
  (ANA), click on Education Programs
  and pull up "How to Prepare a Winning Exhibit."  I put
  this on the ANA site last year and it follows closely the
  course Jerry Kochel and I teach at the ANA Summer
  Seminar.  The course will be offered again next year."

  Here's the direct link to the article:
  Art of Exhibiting


  Tom Leib writes: "I am searching for books about architectural
  medals.  Other than the Eidlitz "Medals and Medallions" and
  Taylor's "The Architectural Medal," are you aware of any other
  books, periodicals, pamphlets, papers, etc. dealing with
  architectural medals?"

  With the encouragement of Dick Johnson, I've been doing
  research on AIA (American Institute of Architects) medals
  and Architectural Award, Society and School medals (as
  opposed to medals commemorating architects or building).
  Any help you can give related to published info about such
  medals will be greatly appreciated."


  A term I hadn't seen used before turned up in two articles in
  the February 2nd issue of COIN WORLD.

  "A metal detectorist hunting in the ruins of a building in Texas
  reportedly found an unusual "base bar" purportedly
  manufactured by a 19th century California Assayer."
  (unattributed article, p34)

  "A metal detectorist who searched several acres of rolling
  woodland in western Massachusetts has unearthed a
  well-preserved piece tentatively identified as a peace medal
  of King George II, circa 1760, which has just sold at auction
  for $805, including 15% buyer's fee." (article by Eric von
  Klinger, p72)

  The von Klinger article goes on to note "The detectorist," as
  he wishes to be known anonymously..."

  A web search found many references to the term, so it is in
  common use among enthusiasts.  There is even a web site,
  Metaldetectorist,com for "News of Interest to
  Metal Detectorists."   The site contains links to articles
  about finds all around the world.


  Len Augsberger writes: "Students of economic history should
  enjoy this:

Kelly Contagion

  The authors have uncovered an interesting facet of market
  panics - this in relation to the Panic of 1857 - the contagion
  spread geographically in New York City, and not only that,
  but it spread among the Irish immigrants in relation to what
  parts of Ireland they had come from.  The effect demonstrates
  how social relationships in Ireland were preserved on the west
  side of the pond, and furthermore how those relationships
  divided "panickers" and "stayers".  Computer geeks will
  appreciate their use of a "decision matrix" in isolating
  demographic criteria.

  That the raw data required to write this paper even exists is
  amazing - a single bank in New York collected large amounts
  of demographic data on their customers and today the data
  can now be analyzed with nearly 150 years of hindsight
  along with the aids of modern technology.


  Gene Anderson writes: "I appreciate the interest shown by
  Eric Newman on the topic of Bay Area counterfeits (BAC).
  I am unfamiliar with the litigation he mentioned and cannot
  throw any light on the name he is trying to remember. I own
  two BACs. They are an 1803 S260 large cent and an 1852
  N6 large cent. I have written an article for Penny-Wise to
  be published probably in the March issue. The goal of my
  recent inquiries has been to flush out any information source
  that I may have over looked.  My article lists 13 different
  dates counterfeited in this way, and it also lists sources that
  contain photos of some of these counterfeits. There is a
  bibliography containing my sources.

  [A copy of Gene's draft has been forwarded to Eric.


  Some more more thoughts on the anti-counterfeiting features
  being built into software were published in the January 19,
  2004 issue of Network World:

  "At first blush this seems to be a reasonable way to slow the
  rush of teenagers using color computer printers to print their
  own money, but there are a number of troubling aspects to
  the story."

  "I did some experiments with my copy of PhotoShop CS.
  The software recognized the new U.S. $20 bills, 10 and 20
  Euro notes, Canadian $20, $50 and $100 bills, and English
  20 pound notes. It did not recognize U.S. $1, $10, $50 or
  $100 bills or $20 bills with the old design, nor did it recognize
  English 5 or 10 pound notes. (That was all the money I had
  around the house.) In case any law enforcement folk are
  reading this, I followed the rules and deleted the scanned
  images as soon as my test was done.

  Because U.S. law allows one-sided color reproductions of
  U.S. currency as long as the image is less than three-fourths
  or more then 1.5 times the size of the actual bill..., PhotoShop
  CS actually stops the user from doing completely legal things.
  Other countries have similar laws (see
  In fact, the U.S. Secret Service could not have used PhotoShop
  CS to produce its Web page if it used a current rather than an
  old $20 bill as the sample currency."

  To read the full article, see:
  Anti-counterfeiting software

  [So ... if software is outlawed, only outlaws will have software
  to manipulate images of currency.  -Editor]


  Howard A. Daniel III writes: "Alan V. Weinberg raised the
  hair on the back of my neck, when he wrote about "duplicates"
  and the Smithsonian Institution's Numismatic Department.
  I've been writing to my two Senators (Warner & Allen) and
  two Representatives (Tom Davis & Joann Davis (I have
  homes in two Virginia districts)) for many years about
  creating a separate National Numismatic Museum (NNM)
  like the National Postal Museum.  This would bring
  numismatics out from under a very big umbrella and make
  it visible to ordinary citizens and   numismatists.  And new
  exhibits might be created every few years instead of basically
  the same one for the past 25+ years.   Another one of my
  projects with my Senators and Representatives is to create a
  bill that will allow the Smithsonian (or new NNM) to keep
  triplicates (I'm generous) of a particular piece.  One for
  obverse exhibiting, a second for reverse exhibiting and a
  third for research purposes.  All of the others could be sold
  or traded (to other museums to acquire missing pieces).
  There are over 1 million pieces in the National Numismatic
  Collection and probably less than one-tenth of one percent
  have ever been seen by the public.  The rarest pieces would
  best be sold through prominent auction houses but the NNM
  could list online the more common pieces and/or sell them
  within the new NNM.  The monies from such sales could
  fund the operation of the museum and new exhibits.  The US
  Mints, Bureau of Printing and Engraving and US Treasury
  could also sell their products within the museum and pay it
  a percentage of their sales for more sources of funds.  Exhibits
  of banks, credit unions, private mints,  financial paper printing
  firms, etc., could be created with their funds and any of their
  products could also be sold for additional  monies.

  I hopes that NBSers will also pick a date every year (or
  term) to write to their Representatives and Senators about
  the creation of a NNM and the selling of "duplicates" in the
  National Numismatic Collection.  You might not like my
  exact ideas, so I suggest that you please write your own
  version.  If you want to correspond with me about this subject,
  send your emails to Howard at"


  Chris Fuccione writes: "Here is some info I had saved on
  Elvira Clain-Stefanelli.  This might shed a different light on the
  Josiah K. Lilly story.   This is from

  "This great collection came to our Museum in a very unusual
  way. Since Mr. Lilly did not leave in his will any provisions for
  its  disposal, it was decided by the executors of the estate to
  donate it "intact" to the National Numismatic Collection: the
  Indiana Congressional delegation with the Honorable William
  Bray and Congressman Andrew Jacobs, Jr., initiated legislation
  in Congress which ultimately resulted in the delivery of the
  collection to the Smithsonian. In exchange the Lilly estate
  received a credit of $5,534,808 on its federal estate tax.
  This amount was determined by expert appraisors, and
  jointly agreed upon by the estate and the appropriate
  federal authorities. It would seem like the collection cost
  the United States tax payers over five million dollars, in
  fact, the actual cost was considerably lower, since the
  estate had to pay on the above amount federal estate and
  Indiana inheritance taxes which reduced the price to less
  than half its initial estimated amount. In "recognition for the
  successful acquisition and display of the Josiah K. Lilly
  collection" in 1973 Dr. V. Clain-Stefanelli and myself were
  given the Smithsonian's gold medal for Exceptional Service."

 This comes from an interview of hers.

 "LEGACY: How much did the Lilly collection expand the
  Smithsonian's holdings of U.S. coins?

  CLAIN- STEFANELLI: Lilly is virtually complete. Only one
  or two coins are missing. But, it duplicates many areas of the
  collection and it could still undergo an improvement in condition.

 LEGACY: So Lilly was not the finest known in many cases?

  CLAIN- STEFANELLI: Correct. But there are many great
  rarities including a large number of unique territorial and private
  gold pieces in his collection. Where he tremendously increased
  our collection was in Latin American. It's almost as complete
  as the U.S. portion. Brazil might have a better collection than
  we have of their coins, but they don't have the other Latin
  American countries. It is fantastic, and was a great addition to
  our collection."

  This comes further down in the interview.
  "LEGACY: I have heard that Vladimir did quite a bit of trading
  in order to get certain coins.

  CLAIN- STEFANELLI: No. We were not allowed to trade.
  Up to this day, we haven't traded one single coin from the
  collection. We traded a large group of Mexican silver dollars
  which came in a block. Those we could trade. That was the
  only trade, and that was after the death of my husband.

  LEGACY: I had heard a story about a 1794 dollar that had
  been here since the 1850s and it was apparently traded. I was
  curious for what.

  CLAIN-STEFANELLI: Not under his time and not under
  my time. And I will tell you, up to about three or four years
  ago, it was forbidden to trade any objects. It started with the
  art museums of the Smithsonian. They made some bad trades
  about 15 years ago and after that, it was an absolute no-no.

  LEGACY: Do you see that as a possibility in the future, as
  one way to get rid of duplicates and get new acquisitions?

  CLAIN-STEFANELLI: Yes, it could be. But it's with many
  "ifs." It would have to get the approval of our legal office and
  it would have to be something that can be proven as
  100-percent fair. An unfair trade is what they're afraid of. So,
  auctions would be the only way for us to go.

  LEGACY: It sounds like an outright trade would be virtually

  CLAIN- STEFANELLI: As long as I am here, if I can avoid
   it,  I would, because it's a lot of headaches. If I take this coin
  and want to trade it, I have to go through all the records and
  make absolutely certain that there is no possibility of there
  being some strings attached to it.

  Now, no one in their right mind would trade rarities, so trading
  is only for the common coins where you would have duplicates.
  But you have to do a lot of research for coins that might be
  worth $20, maybe $50. 1 might have to spend days for one
  single coin to make certain it's completely free.

  LEGACY: What do you mean by "strings attached?"

  CLAIN- STEFANELLI: So many things were donated over
  the past hundred or so years that our collection has existed,
  that there might be some hidden document, something that
  says the coins cannot be traded. If you give me something,
  a donation, and say, "It has to stay here in perpetuity," I
  cannot touch it."


  Dick Johnson writes: "The March 2004 issue of "Games
  Magazine" for those with high IQs (needless to say, I don't
  subscribe, but I do skim my daughter's issue every month)
  has an interesting test.  Draw both sides of the Lincoln
  cent from memory without looking.  Drawing skill doesn't
  count. (Hint: wording does!)  Then it will tell you how
  "psychologists' test subjects performed."  After you have
  done this see the comments at the end of this E-Sylum."


  Regarding Chick Ambrass' comments from last week,
  Ray Williams writes: "Although I agree with Chick's
  points in his article, I think he actually meant to say British
  Colonies instead of American colonies."

  Doug Andrews writes: "I had to re-read Chick Ambrass's
  comments several times to make sure I wasn't seeing things!
  He asserts: "In 1688 when the letters in reference were
  written... Canada was part of the American colonies."

  Nice try, but his account of Canadian history is a little off
  to say the least. In 1688, in fact, what is now Canada was
  governed as four separate entities. Nova Scotia and
  Newfoundland were colonies directly under the British
  Crown, New France (comprised of much of central Canada)
  was a French colony and remained so until 1759, and the
  areas around Hudson's Bay were in fact the exclusive
  property of a private company, The Hudson's Bay Trading

  The last was by far the largest, covering most of present
  day northern Ontario and Quebec, as well as Manitoba
  and the Territories, and it wasn't a colony of any country.
  The remainder of present day Canada was either a British
  settlement governed separately from the "Thirteen Colonies,"
  or a French overseas possession. Their relationship with the
  British colonies stretching from New Hampshire to Georgia
  thus was tenuous at best.

  If his inference was that Canada somehow fell into the orbit
  of the Thirteen Colonies, he is mistaken.

  Mr. Ambrass's reference to whether inhabitants of North or
  South America outside of the US are "Americans" raises a
  valid point, however. The issue is resolved by clarifying that
  Canadians and Mexicans are "North Americans;"  Brazilians,
  for example, are "South Americans." The more difficult
  question of the day is whether the British consider themselves

  Ted Buttrey replies: To put the thing in its geographical and its
  historical context:  All of the Americas (that name itself is an
  accident), North and South, were infested with colonies from
  various European nations; and all of those nations, as far as
  I'm aware, referred to their colonists as "Americans",
  regardless of where they came from or where they settled.
  The colonies themselves bore names that were either
  European in origin (New Galicia) or indigenous (Guatemala).

  When 13 separate British colonies got out from under British
  rule they were each an independent nation -- "state" --, and
  each had its own name -- Massachusetts, Rhode Island, etc.
  When they subsequently agreed to form a federate union they
  had no common name for the federation and had to make one
  up.  So "United States" must have been obvious, though
  personally I would have preferred "States United" or "States
  in Union", emphasizing that each was still maintaining its own
  sovereignty.  But I wonder whether the term "United States"
  wasn't modeled on the "United Provinces" of the Lowlands.

  As to "of America", it's clear from all the sources that the
  separation from Britain was more than political.  Over the
  decades the people of the British Colonies came to feel that
  they were their own kind of people, no longer just Europeans
  who had moved elsewhere.  (And of course it was that
  growing feeling that the British tried to suppress, e.g. by
  requiring the trade of each colony to move via the motherland,
  and restricting trade among the several colonies.)  So
  "of America" made clear both where this was happening,
  geographically, and politically the severance from Europe.

  Remember too that at the time the USA was the only
  independent nation of the Western Hemisphere.  Everybody
  else inhabited a colony that was an arm of some European
  nation.  So in that sense the inhabitants of the USA were
  the only people that could be described politically, nationally,
  as Americans.

  The problem that bugs Chick, and indeed continues to annoy
  many south of the Rio Grande, is our habit of referring to
  ourselves, exclusively, as "Americans", as against "Mexicans",
  "Guatemalans", etc.  But really this is a problem that grows
  out of language -- as he notices -- not out of a superior
  cultural or historical or political attitude.  "United States of
  America" is more a label, a description, than a name, and the
  fact is that the English language does not lend itself to
  "United Statser".

  The adjectives derived from place names are various in form
  yet can be very specific.  I remember a political cartoon of
  years ago when Bobby Kennedy moved his legal residence
  from Massachusetts to New York so that he could run for
  the Senate from there: he was sketched addressing his new
  political audience, "Fellow New Yorkites..."

  That makes its point: there are proper and improper ways
  of doing this.  But there is simply no way to derive a proper
  adjective from "United States of America".  It can be done
  in other languages: in Spanish each of us is an
  "Estadounidense", in Italian, "Statunitese".  We're stuck with
  "American", I'm afraid.  It was never intended to be offensive,
  but it has come to be so with some folks, and you can only try
  to get them to understand."


  Regarding the "throwing coins away" discussion relating to the
  Ancient Coins for Education project, Gar Travis writes:
  "I have, in the past encountered some of this "talk" regarding
  the ill disposition by archeologists of coins on site.  I have
  attached a rather lengthy grouping of  e-mails between
  numismatists about a certain archeologist. Somewhere in
  all this is mention of discarding coins, I'm sure you'll enjoy
  the read...

  Also - here is a related link:

  [The exchange was far too lengthy to even to attempt
   to excerpt.  The first salvo came from an archeologist
  speaking against the ACE project, followed by others
  rebutting his position.  As with any emotional discussion,
  both sides waxed eloquent and presented what they felt
  were ironclad arguments. -Editor]


  Dick Johnson writes: "There are four features on each side
  of a Lincoln cent, counting images and lettering (they say).
  Hopefully you put the correct lettering in the right space for
  both sides.  (I blew it, I switched two. But I added a bonus,
  I added the engravers' initials on both sides. As a numismatist,
  I bet you did too!)  It shouldn't count if you had Lincoln facing
  the wrong direction.

  Games Magazine quoted a book "How The Mind Works"
  by Steven Pinker (1997):  "Only five percent of the subjects
  drew all eight. The median number remembered was three,
  and half [of the items drawn] were in the wrong place."


  From a North Queensland, Australia newspaper comes this
  item, which I wonder may constitute a record for the length
  of time a swallowed coin remains in a human.

  "A TOWNSVILLE girl who has been living with a $1 coin in
  her throat for more than six years is relieved to be finally rid
  of the small change which has caused her and her family so
  much grief.

  Ten-year-old Onnalisa Taylor, of Pimlico, had a habit of
  swallowing coins when she was younger.

  But little did she know her habit would lead to almost a
  lifetime of medical problems.

  Her mum Sharlene Taylor said the coin went undetected in
  her throat for more than six years while doctors treated her
  for asthma because of her breathing difficulties."

  "Onnalisa told the Bulletin she would always keep the coin
  in a safe place.

  She agreed it would make a great "show and tell'' item but
  wasn't too sure if she would be game enough to touch the
  coin in front of her classmates.

  For the compete article, see

Complete Article


  This week's featured web page is Tom Chao's Paper Money
  Gallery of world banknotes.   "My hobby is collecting paper
  money from different countries of the world. I dedicate this
  web site exclusively to paper money so that you too can
  share the joy of my collection. My entire collection is now
  on display for your viewing pleasure. There are 1434 notes,
  over 2600 scans front and back."
  Wayne Homren
  Numismatic Bibliomania Society 

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